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ITAP ‘The Genius Of Photography’ Part Six

How many photographs are taken in a year?
It is estimated that around 80 billion photographs are taken in a year.
What is Gregory Crewdsons modus operandi?
Gregory Crewdson is a photographer who doesn’t actually use the camera himself. He has a strange disconnection to photography and doesn’t like holding a camera.
He stages and directs large scale scenes to create single still photographs. He works with a large number of experienced people who have worked within film crews and other similar areas.
His photographs  often feature disturbing, surreal events. The photographs are shot using a large crew, and are elaborately staged and lit.
Which prints command the highest price & what are they called?
 “Vintage” photographs demand the highest price in the photography market. These are photographs that have been printed by the photographer himself, closest to the time the picture was actually taken.
What is a Fake photograph? Give an example and explain how & why it is fake.
A fake photograph is one that it not all it appears to be.
It has been edited and manipulated, some things taken away or added in.
An example of this is ‘The Cottingley Fairies’.
Two young cousins, Elsie Wright and Frances Griffiths, from Cottingley, UK, took a series of 5 photographs of themselves supposedly sitting with fairies beside the stream at the bottom of their garden.
The ‘fairies’ were infact cardboard cutouts, but the photographs were believed to be real, and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle used them to illustrate an article he wrote on fairies.

Who is Li Zhensheng and what is he famous for?
Li Zhensheng is a red soldier photo journalist who covered the Cultural Revolution. He had to hide his photographs and today they are still not shown in China.
What is the photographer’s “holy of holies”?
Magnum is one of the most well known photographic agencys well known for its revolutionary work, such as it’s photography based around war and other revolutionary events. Martin Parr struggled to get into magnum for this reason, as photographers and critics saw his work unsuitable for the purpose, as they didn’t have as much meaning.

How does Ben Lewis see Jeff Walls photography?
 Ben Lewis believes that Jeff Walls didn’t reinvent photography, but he took it back to the 19th century to painting where everything is creative.
He also thinks that Walls fed in a lot of contemporary theoretical concern, as he raised arguments between how women and men perceive each other, aswell as racial stereotyping. His work addressed these arguments.
Which famous photograph was taken by “Frank Mustard”?
‘The River France’


ITAP ‘The Genius Of Photography’ Part Five

Who said “ The camera gave me the license to strip away what you want people to know about you, to reveal what you can’t help people knowing about you”, and when was it said?
Diane Arbus

Do photographers tend to prey on vulnerable people?
Some people argue that photographers prey on vulnerable people. However, I believe that this depends on the intentions behind the images. For example, Diane Arbus created the series “Freaks”, showing people that can be perceived as abnormal by society, however, she showed that they are normal people and that sometimes what we think is normal actually isn’t. I don’t think that this is exploitation, as she is accepting them into society.

Who is Colin Wood?
Colin Wood is the small boy in Arbus’ photograph “Child With Toy Hand Grenade in Central Park”.

Why do you think Diane Arbus committed suicide?
Diane Arbus committed suicide in 1971, after suffering with depression.
Some people believe that in her photography she portrayed her own anxieties and it can seem that she was trying to be someone else.

Why and how did Larry Clark shoot “Tulsa”?
Larry Clark took portraits showing the life he and the people around him were living. Revolving around drink, drugs and sex.
These photographs were in a series called “Tulsa”, which opened up the “Impolite Genre”.

Try to explain the concept of “confessional photography”, and what is the “impolite genre”?
Confessional photography consists of images that are very open and truthful, they don’t sugar-coat the situations.
For example, Nan Goldin’s photography consisted of images involving prostitution, drugs and domestic violence.
The impolite genre involves confessional photography, not hiding anything that could shock or offend the audience.

What will Araki not photograph, and why?
Araki does not photograph things in his life that he doesn’t like, as he only shoots what he wants to remember. He says that photography helps him remember.
What is the premise of Postmodernism?
Postmodernism focuses on the ideas that our culture now revolves around media imagery, showing people how we believe we should live our lives. In postmodernism individuals don’t have their own inherent humanity, as we’re all composites of myths and narratives written by people.
Cindy Sherman is a photographer whose work may be considered as postmodernist, as she photographed herself in her series titled “Film Stills”, in cliché situations from movies that many audiences would be familiar with.

ITAP ‘The Genius Of Photography’ Part Four

Why did Garry Winogrand take photographs?
Garry Winogrand, a famous American street photographer took photographs “to see what the world looked like photographed”.

Why did “citizens evolve from blurs to solid flesh”?
As technology has evolved in photography, it has changed the content and ways in which people work. For example, the development of faster shutter speeds meant “citizens evolved from blurs into solid flesh”.

What was/is the “much misunderstood theory”?
The most misunderstood theory in photography is The Decisive Moment, as some photographers make a situation happen before they capture an image, whereas others seek the situations, and are in the right place at the right time.

Who was the godfather of street photography in the USA?
 Many people consider Garry Winogrand as the Godfather of photography, being a huge influence for many. He had an “appetite for life” and stalked people in order to achieve the images he did. His most famous images were his series taken in zoos.

Who was Paul Martin and what did he do?
 Paul Martin is a British photographer, who focused a lot of his images around English sea side, showing people having fun.

Who said “When I was growing up photographers were either nerds or pornographers”?
Photographer Ed Ruscha said this,  proving how much the industry has grown in the past few decades.

Why does William Eggleston photograph in colour?
 William Eggleston is famous for being one of the first successful colour photographers in the art industry. He photographs in colour as he finds that it’s the colour that creates the image, and gives him as an artist, more of a visual hierarchy to work with. He works to structure colour in an image, and this makes his images very powerful.
What is William Eggleston about?
 Eggleston sees the complexity and beauty of the mundane world.
He photographs ordinary subject matter, as Eudora Welty  noted in her introduction to The Democratic Forest, an Eggleston photograph might include “old tyres, Dr Pepper machines, discarded air-conditioners, vending machines, empty and dirty Coca-Cola bottles, torn posters, power poles and power wires, street barricades, one-way signs, detour signs, No Parking signs, parking meters and palm trees crowding the same curb.”

ITAP ‘The Genius Of Photography’ Part Three

What is described as “One of the most familiar concepts in photography”?
“A Decisive Moment” is one of the most familiar concepts in photography. In which, the photographer has purposely chosen a certain moment to capture that image.
Henri Cartier-Bresson is a well-known pioneer of this technique. One of his most famous images being the one below, in which he has purposely waited for the subject to take that leap.
Should you trust a photograph? (1.38m G3)
 Trusting a photograph can be a natural instinct for the audience, however, appearances may not always be as they seem. This can depend on the artist and the way in which they work.
What was revolutionary about the Leica in 1925?
The Leica was compact and quiet for its time in 1925, allowing photographers to photos easily and freely. This was particularly revolutionary for war photographers who had to take photographs quickly, whilst also carrying weapons etc. The small 35mm film camera was especially revolutionary when compared to the much larger format cameras.
What did George Bernard Shaw say about all the paintings of Christ?
George Bernard Shaw said “I would exchange every painting of Christ for one snapshot”, relating to how much people trust what they see in photographs, and how they see it as real evidence.
Why were Tony Vaccaros’ negatives destroyed by the army censors?
Tony Vaccaro, a well-known war photographer, had some of his negatives destroyed by army censors due to them containing images of dead GIs. These images were shocking for the time, and wouldn’t have been well received by audiences.

Who was Henryk Ross and what was his job?
Henryk Ross was a photographer who worked as an official propaganda photographer in Nazi Ghettos for the Department of Security & Administration. He created identity cards, took photos of the production of goods, as well as taking documentary images of how the Jewish people lived. Showing, not only their suffering, but also the happiness of their family events.
Which show was a “sticking plaster for the wounds of the war”, how many people saw it and what “cliché” did it end on?
The Family of Man was a photograph exhibition considered as being a “sticking plaster for the wounds of the war”. It contained over 500 images created by 273 photographers. It was a walkthrough version of LIFE magazine.  The show ended on W. Eugene Smith’s photograph of his own children walking in a garden, connoting the “beginning of their journey through life”.
Why did Joel Meyerowitz photograph ground zero in colour?
 Joel Meyerowitz photographed ground zero despite being told not to take photographs by Police. He photographed the images in colour for 8 months, saying that black and white would keep it as a tragedy, because there’s a tragic element to photographing not the war, but the destruction.

ITAP ‘The Genius Of Moving Image’ Part Three

The Work of Director Chris Cunningham

Portishead – Only You
Bjork – All Is Full Of Love

Then the making of  ‘All Is Full Of Love’ featuring interviews with Bjork and Chris Cunningham

How did Bjork and Chris collaborate on the All Is Full Of Love video?
Bjork and Chris had mutual friends in London, and after the Aphex Twin video he worked on came out, people were excited about his work. It was suggested that she ask him to direct the video for her track ‘All Is Full Of Love’.
Bjork sent the track to Chris and he really liked it, and they decided to collaborate.
She gave him a very specific idea and mood she wanted for the video, describing “a sort of heaven”.
Cunningham said he was waiting for a chance to do something like this video as he had been obsessed with engineering since he was a child. They went back and forth for a few months sending each other ideas until they finally decided upon one which was not too literal but had all of the ingredients that Bjork wanted to include.
What techniques were used on the Portishead video to create the unusual slow motion effects? Research this.
 Portishead singer Beth Gibbons and the young male actor were filmed in a tank of water, the air bubbles were edited out in post-production and then they were digitally inserted into the dark alleyway scene to create the slow motion effect.
What other music video directors have gone on to direct feature films? Name two and the feature films they have made.
Spike Jonze, also known as Richard Koufey, directed and starred in the music video ‘Praise You’ by Fatboy Slim, before directing the film ‘Where the Wild Things Are’.
Anton Corbijn is another creative who began his career directing music videos, such as Nirvana’s ‘Heart-Shaped Box’, before moving into film. He directed ‘Control’, a film about the life of  the late Joy Division singer Ian Curtis.

Which famous sci – fi film did Chris Cunningham work on before he became a director?
A.I  (Artificial Intelligence)
What makes his work different or original compared to other similar directors?
I think Cunningham’s work is different and original because he always likes to do something different each time, which makes it refreshing and new, and if you like, tailor-made to whichever music artist he is working with at the time, as he creates his ideas from listening to the music.
Directors like Tim Burton for example, always do the same style with every film that they make and it can become a little stale and boring.

ITAP ‘The Genius Of Moving Image’ Part Two


What is the role of the cinematographer in film making?
The cinematographer, or director of photography, has various roles.
They work alongside the director, making decisions such as the look and feel of the film and choosing the film stock, lens, filters etc to realize the scene in accordance with the intentions of the director. They are chief over camera and lighting crews.
The cinematographer develops a way to visually represent the story and guide the viewer through the scenes using lighting and carefully planned scenes , “manufacturing and heightening reality to get the audience to feel a certain way”.
The director is the author of the story of the film, the cinematographer is the author of the use of light in the film and how it contributes to the story.
Why did director Roman Polanski insist on using hand held camera in the film Chinatown?
The use of a hand-held camera allows the cameraman to film intimate scenes, close up to the actors and the scene. It made things much easier to shoot and much easier to handle. This is why Roman Polanski insisted on the use of hand-held in the film China Town. He liked that he could push the cameras in front of the actors, and “intimidate” them.
With hand-held he was able to get shots that otherwise would have had to be done on stages and moving walls. The extreme closeness of the camera towards the actors provides the viewer with an intense perspective which was the intended response from Polanski.
Name two films which use colour in a very symbolic way, and describe what they suggest.
 ‘2001: A Space Odyssey’ uses colour in a very symbolic way. Such as the use of black in the beginning to connote the beginning of life being nothingness. The large use of red represents the intelligence and understanding of the new intelligence serving those who seek answers. The large use of white portrays the innocence of certain characters in the film.
‘The Last Emperor’ is another film that uses colour in a symbolic way, golden light representing the Imperial China, Red portraying Communist China, and Post-Communist china being shown by light brown.

In the film Raging Bull why was the fight scene filmed at different speeds?
The fight scene is filmed at different speeds, switching between 24 and 48 fps, adding emotional impact, as the audience can really see the passion of the characters in the fight. For example, slow motion shows the characters expressions and feelings, whereas real-time parts show the more physical impacts.
Certain shots were filmed in a much slower and dramatic way, drawing you into the role of the character by stepping into the character’s shoes before being flung back into the action.
Who is the cinematographer for the film Apocalypse Now, and what is his philosophy?
See “Visions Of Light, The Art Of Cinematography” Arnold Glassman
Vittorio Storaro is the cinematographer in the film ‘Apocalypse Now’.
He believes cinematography is a ‘community’ art form, unlike photography which he believes is a to be a ‘single’ art form like painting or writing.

ITAP ‘The Genius Of Moving Image’ Part One

The Work Of Sam Taylor Wood

List two specific key relationships between Sam Taylor Wood’s photography and film work
Her work is very personal and autobiographical.
She talks about her self portraits as ‘punctuation points’ of her life, which she shoots when she feels it is the right time to make them, usually around poignant times in her life.
Taylor Wood also uses emotion, people, and sometimes animals, to narrate a story, both in her film and photography.

How does the use of multi-screen installation in her work reflect narrative?
High emotion is portrayed through her multi-screen installations, such as her first, ‘Killing Time’ which was highly inspired by The Royal Opera House. It allows the audience to piece together their own narrative instead of a story being told.

What other photographers use film as an integral part of their work. List two with examples?
Tim Walker, creator of ‘The Lost Explorer’ &  ‘Blood and Water and Other Tales’, is a photographer that uses film as an integral part of his work.
He says, “When you’re working in stills you see all this beauty you can never work with. Stills are powerful because they freeze the moment, but film is powerful in another way. People can move and speak and express themselves.”



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– CJ Clarke  had always wanted to become a film director. It proved impossible because of his lack of access to affordable technology, until six years after starting his career in photography.
His 2 minute film ‘Mother and Daughter’ tells the story of a young girl whose studies are affected by her mother’s depression.
Visitors to the School-Home Support website can enter three rooms in the protagonists’ flat and watch three different versions of Clarke’s film. Each offers “different angles to the story to fit the different audiences”, which offers “multiple entry points depending on whether the viewer knows the charity or not”, says the photographer.





Research three other Video artists and explain their working philosophy

 – Bill Viola has been instrumental in the establishment of video as a vital form of contemporary art.
His works focus on universal human experiences – birth, death, the unfolding of consciousness  – and have roots in both Eastern and Western art as well as spiritual traditions, including Zen Buddhism, Islamic Sufism, and Christian mysticism.



-Vidya Gastaldon is a French artist who specialises in surreal, contemporary illustrations and films of other worldy life. She develops a universe immersed in a hippy and psychedelic aesthetic, in New Age, and in minimalist abstraction. Through her series of drawings, her films, and her sculptures in wool and other “craft” materials, the artist deploys an aesthetic of “states” rather than of formal or theoretical references, where notions of pleasure and experience find a new force.


Show an example of a specific gallery space or a site specific location where a video artist or film maker has created work specifically for that space and been influenced by it.